NBFC Registration in India
A non-banking financial company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 and is engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/stock/bonds/debentures/securities issued by government or local authority or other securities of like marketable nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business, but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.
A non-banking institution which is a company and which has its principal business of receiving deposits under any scheme or arrangement or any other manner, or lending in any manner is also a non-banking financial company (residuary non-banking company).
NBFCs are doing functions akin to that of banks, however there are a few differences:
- (i) a NBFC cannot accept demand deposits (demand deposits are funds deposited at a depository institution that are payable on demand -- immediately or within a very short period -- like your current or savings accounts.)
- (ii) it is not a part of the payment and settlement system and as such cannot issue cheques to its customers; and
- (iii) deposit insurance facility of DICGC is not available for NBFC depositors unlike in case of banks.
In terms of Section 45-IA of the RBI Act, 1934, it is mandatory that every NBFC should be registered with RBI to commence or carry on any business of non-banking financial institution as defined in clause (a) of Section 45 I of the RBI Act, 1934.
However, to obviate dual regulation, certain category of NBFCs which are regulated by other regulators are exempted from the requirement of registration with RBI viz. venture capital fund/merchant banking companies/stock broking companies registered with Sebi, insurance company holding a valid certificate of registration issued by IRDA, Nidhi companies as notified under Section 620A of the Companies Act, 1956, chit companies as defined in clause (b) of Section 2 of the Chit Funds Act, 1982 or housing finance companies regulated by National Housing Bank.
The NBFCs that are registered with RBI are:
- (i) equipment leasing company;
- (ii) hire-purchase company;
- (iii) loan company;
- (iv) investment company.
With effect from December 6, 2006 the above NBFCs registered with RBI have been reclassified as
- (i) Asset Finance Company (AFC)
- (ii) Investment Company (IC)
- (iii) Loan Company (LC)
AFC would be defined as any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the financing of physical assets supporting productive / economic activity, such as automobiles, tractors, lathe machines, generator sets, earth moving and material handling equipments, moving on own power and general purpose industrial machines.
Principal business for this purpose is defined as aggregate of financing real/physical assets supporting economic activity and income arising therefrom is not less than 60% of its total assets and total income respectively.
The above type of companies may be further classified into those accepting deposits or those not accepting deposits.
Besides the above class of NBFCs the Residuary Non-Banking Companies are also registered as NBFC with the Bank.
A company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 and desirous of commencing business of non-banking financial institution as defined under Section 45 I(a) of the RBI Act, 1934 should have a minimum net owned fund of Rs 25 lakh (raised to Rs 2 crore from April 21, 1999).
The company is required to submit its application for registration in the prescribed format alongwith necessary documents for bank's consideration. The bank issues certificate of registration after satisfying itself that the conditions as enumerated in Section 45-IA of the RBI Act, 1934 are satisfied.