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What is Share? What are the Types of Shares



What is Share? What are the Types of Shares

Definition:

According to the section 2(46) of the Company’s Act 1956, share means a part in the share capital of the company and it also includes stock except where a distinction between stock and share capital is made expressed or implied.

Types of shares:

As per the provision of section 85 of the Companies Act, 1956, the share capital of a company consists of two classes of shares, namely:

§  Preference Shares

§  Equity Shares

§  Preference Shares:

According to Sec 85(1), of the Companies Act, 1956, a preference share is one, which carries the following two preferential rights:

(a) The payment of dividend at fixed rate before paying dividend to equity shareholders.

(b) The return of capital at the time of winding up of the company, before the payment to the equity shareholder.

Both the rights must exist to make any share a preference share and should be clearly mentioned in the Articles of Association.

Preference shareholders do not have any voting rights, but in the following conditions they can enjoy the voting rights:

(1) In case of cumulative preference shares, if dividend is outstanding for more than two years.

(2) In case of non-cumulative preference shares, if dividend is outstanding for more than three years.

(3) On any resolution of winding up.

(4) On any resolution of capital reduction.

Types of preference shares:

In addition to the aforesaid two rights, a preference shares may carry some other rights. On the basis of additional rights, preference shares can be classified as follows:

Cumulative Preference Shares: Cumulative preference shares are those shares on which the amount of divided if not paid in any year, due to loss or inadequate profits, then such unpaid divided will accumulate and will be paid in the subsequent years before any divided is paid to the equity share holders. Preference shares are always deemed to be cumulative unless any express provision is mentioned in the Articles.

Non-Cumulative Preference Shares: Non-cumulative preference shares are those shares on which arrear of dividend do not accumulate. Therefore if divided is not paid on these shares in any year, the right receive the dividend lapses and as such, the arrear of divided is not paid out of the profits of the subsequent years.

Participating Preference Shares: Participation preference shares are those shares, which, in addition to the basic preferential rights, also carry one or more of the following rights:

(a) To receive dividend, out of surplus profit left after paying the dividend to equity shareholders.

(b) To have share in surplus assets, which remains after the entire capital has been paid on winding up of the company.

Non-Participating Preference Shares: Non-participation preference shares are those shares, which do not have the following rights:

(a) To receive dividend, out of surplus profit left after paying the dividend to equity shareholders.

(b) To have share in surplus assets, which remains after the entire capital has been paid on winding up of the company.

Preference shares are always deemed to be non-participating, if the Article of the company is silent.

Convertible Preference Shares: Convertible preference shares are those shares, which can be converted into equity shares on or after the specified date according to terms mentioned in the prospectus.

Non-Convertible Preference Shares: Non-convertible preference shares, which cannot be converted into equity shares. Preference shares are always being to be non-convertible, if the Article of the company is silent.

Redeemable Preference Shares: Redeemable preference shares are those shares which can be redeemed by the company on or after the certain date after giving the prescribed notice. These shares are redeemed in accordance with the terms and sec. 80 of the Company’s Act 1956.

Irredeemable Preference Shares: Irredeemable preference shares are those shares, which cannot be redeemed by the company during its life time, in other words it can be said that these shares can only be redeemed by the company at the time of winding up. But according to the sec. 80 (5A) of the Company’s (Amendment) Act 1988 no company can issue irredeemable preference shares.

Equity shares:

According to section 85 (2), of Companies Act, 1956, Equity share can be defined as the share, which is not preference shares. In other words equity shares are those shares, which do not have the following preferential rights:

(a) Preference of dividend over others.

(b) Preference for repayment of capital over others at the time of winding up of the company.

These shares are also known as ‘Risk Capital’, because they get dividend on the balance of profit if any, left after payment of dividend on preference shares and also at the time of winding up of the company, they are paid from the balance asset left after payment of other liabilities and preference share capital. Apart from this they have to claim dividend only, if the company in its A. G. M. declares the dividend. The rate of dividend on such shares is not pre-determined, but it depends on the profit earned by the company. The equity shareholders have the right to vote on each and every resolution placed before the company and the holders of these shares are the real owners of the company.

Comments
 Leo Joseph April 13, 2011
I want to know more about its.
 hemant April 19, 2011
sir can u explain me meaning of share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
 vishnu May 15, 2011
Sir can we convert from preferential share into equity share
muzammil mudgal June 4, 2011
hey dis is nice thanks for providing this article
 priyanka June 22, 2011
thanks 4 providind us dis great knowledge... thanks alot...
 Anil Kumar June 24, 2011
What is the meaning of Defered Shares...? Can you Explain In Breifly.
 karthik. June 26, 2011
nice Explanation..
 lakshmikanthreddy July 5, 2011
thanks for providing this knowladge about shares
 vikash thakur July 15, 2011
very nice Explanation
 vikash thakur July 15, 2011
sir Please explain preferential share & equity shares longly.
 jyothi July 20, 2011
sir can i know more differences between equity shareholder and preference share holder
 rajini July 20, 2011
i want to know about zero coupon bonds
 basu July 28, 2011
Zero coupon bonds are bonds that do not pay interest during the life of the bonds. Instead, investors buy zero coupon bonds at a deep discount from their face value, which is the amount a bond will be worth when it "matures" or comes due. When a zero coupon bond matures, the investor will receive one lump sum equal to the initial investment plus the imputed interest
 jay mangal July 30, 2011
sir,very nice answer
 MANGESH September 18, 2011
Thanks for providing this knowledge about shares......
 charu ahuja September 24, 2011
sir would u please tell me the meaning of 'sweat eqity'??
 rajesh October 7, 2011
sir can we convert the short length of preference shares and equity shares
 pradip October 7, 2011
i am new today if u take 100 shares of x company then after 4 days i can sell it those shares which types
 amaresh November 7, 2011
i want more information in a simple language
 Arunabha Basak December 1, 2011
i want more information. there are other shares also.such as mutual,debenture,post value,etc.
 shreya December 31, 2011
please someone tell me is der any more typ of share just lyk deferred share, right share, bonous share ..??
 SAMIR SARKAR January 5, 2012
I want to do back office course on share Market.What course will be the most demandable & most earning now a days & I am H.S. Pass candidate.
 shashidhar February 17, 2012
can i know information about analysis of shares
 shashidhar February 17, 2012
can i know information about analysis of shares
 payal February 22, 2012
thanks for detail explaination
augustine February 28, 2012
sir can u please explain what are shares issued under non-repatriation basis to a person outside India on receipt of foreign inward remittance?
Ajey Singh March 25, 2012
thanx....gonna help me in my xam tomorrow :P
 mahadevaprasad March 28, 2012
thank you for your information it will help my presentation.thanku so much
 Roxanne April 9, 2012
Good one.
Ogbeyi April 9, 2012
Sir, is there anything like“deferred share?”If any, what is it?
Vijay May 3, 2012
How to invest in shares?plz
 naveen parsad May 20, 2012
thank you sir ..
 veerendra May 28, 2012
sir, wat r the basics to start investing in shares n wat types?
william August 14, 2012
complete elabooration of shares ...what are the uses of buying or selling shares ?
Shashi Kant Pathak August 19, 2012
thanks sir, for your contribution.
Shashi Kant Pathak August 19, 2012
sir, i want to know about sweat equity share
Shashi Kant Pathak August 19, 2012
thanks sir, for your contribution.
karthi kn September 15, 2012
i want more briefly explanations
subodh kumar September 20, 2012
sir,which sort of company can issue commulative redimable preferencial share?
odion iredia September 29, 2012
sir, is there any thing like DEBENTURE SHARE
ISWARYA November 20, 2012
lkhndewrf
vinuvikram November 20, 2012
i love u nayanthara
Nikhil sharma January 16, 2013
Sir can u suggest me that which shareholders are proven more beneficial by their investment.
anisha khubchandani August 13, 2013
What is the difference between shares with normal voting rights and shares with differential voting right??????
Anisha khubchandani August 13, 2013
Which shares are more beneficial equity or preference shares??
Damasi Samuel September 13, 2013
I WANT TO FLOAT SHARES IN MY CREDIT UNION.SO I NEED AN ADVICE.
Rani November 27, 2013
can give infomation
Hemcharan November 27, 2013
why stock market is started? & what is the use of it, to our country
Just tell me this.
Roja November 27, 2013
Could you please clarify me, what is the use of share and all!
To this developing & poor country
Mahendra December 4, 2013
Can a share holder get convertible and irredeemable shares in a single share at one time?
priyanka November 22, 2016
hello
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VideoPortal March 11, 2017
While there are a few conventions which are best followed to avoid any misunderstandings a company can call shares by whatever name it likes.  That said, you cannot simply assume that shares called ordinary in one company will have exactly the same rights as the ordinary shares in another company.  Indeed the only way to ascertain what rights go with a particular share class is to read the Articles of Association of that company.
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